Research Program

1. Introduction

SafeWaveTM Technology is based upon research performed by the Catholic University of America (CUA) in Washington D.C. that was originally funded by a US government grant. The CUA research group was an interdisciplinary team of 15 physicists, biochemists, biologists and engineers. For over twenty years, the researchers at CUA carried out an extensive program of investigations to examine whether low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) both at Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF) and Radio Frequency (RF–mobile phones), can affect biological systems and, more importantly, whether such biological interactions, if evident, could be explained via plausible mechanisms.

It was found that EMF exposure, including radiation emitted from mobile phones, could indeed cause biological effects which could, in turn, have potentially adverse consequences on health. In investigations designed to gain an understanding as to why these biological effects were occurring, the researchers explored how varying the characteristics of the stimulating signal would affect the extent of the biological response. In so doing, a method was established for reducing the biological effects through the superposition of electromagnetic noise over the stimulating signal. It is this simple principle that forms the basis of SafeWaveTM Technology and the associated global IP.

A comprehensive research program was undertaken to further explore and validate this methodology and in the following years the initial findings were confirmed through a varied range of independent experimental studies. The method to reduce biological effects from low intensity EMF exposure, was tested by seven universities across 3 continents. In all cases the independent studies confirmed the results. Section 2 presents both the research conducted by the CUA as well as the confirmatory studies carried out at other institutions around the world.

There is extensive and continuing research, including long-term epidemiological studies, to assess whether the previously referenced biological effects may lead to long-term health effects. Over the past decade there have been an increasing number of studies demonstrating a link between mobile phone use and health effects, and an accompanying surge in action from governments and leading associations to promote a precautionary approach towards the use of mobile phones.

Arguably, there is now enough experimental evidence to show beyond reasonable doubt that biological effects can occur due to exposure to low intensity EMFs. Furthermore, it is also credible that these biological effects may be a risk factor for serious health effects.

Due to the level of understanding of the EMF issue, the discussion and the scientific efforts should, at this point in time, focus on the potential link between the recognised biological effects and the possible resulting health effects, or rather the risk of health effects as a result of these biological effects.

A biological effect is the first step in the sequence that may lead to a range of different health effects, and is therefore a fundamental requirement for a health effect to occur. SafeWaveTM Technology neutralising signal negates the ability of a stimulating signal to cause a biological effect, hence providing protection against the possible health risks.

If the biological effects are eliminated, the risks of health effects are also eliminated.

SafeWaveTM Technology neutralising signal ensures that the cellular communication mechanism that controls the biological reponse is not triggered by the electromagnetic stimulus presented by emissions from mobile phones. The technology maintains the cells in their neutral state and provides protection against both modulated microwaves as emitted from mobile phones, and ELF fields.

SafeWaveTM technology is unique in its ability to reduce biological effects caused by these types of electromagnetic radiation.

2. CUA Research Program

The notion that extremely low frequency (ELF) noise magnetic fields can be used to inhibit biological effects from exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) was established through research carried out at the Catholic University of America located in Washington, DC, USA. The results of this research have been presented in close to thirty scientific papers published in well respected peer reviewed scientific journals including: the American Journal of Epidemiology, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, Bioelectromagnetics, Circulation, Radiation Research, and the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health.

This section contains a brief synopsis of these publications grouped into sub-sections intended to outline how this technology was developed. Other publications from several universities around the world that provide independent verification of the inhibitory nature of ELF noise fields on ELF and RF induced biological effects are also included.

2.1 Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Effects

Effects of exposure to 60 Hz ELF magnetic fields are reported on the activity of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and chick embryo morphology. ODC is a rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines and, as such, plays an important role in cell functions related to growth and development. ELF exposure resulted in an approximate doubling of the ODC activity and the observed rate of embryo abnormalities. Some variability in the results was observed which was attributed to genetic differences in the treated samples. These results suggest a genetic factor in the susceptibility to ELF field exposure.

2.1.a Delineation of Electric and Magnetic Field Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Transcription

J. J. Greene, W. J. Skowronski, J. M. Mullins, R. M. Nardone, M. Penafiel, R. Meister, 1991. Delineation of Electric and Magnetic Field Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Transcription. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 174:742-749. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1993069>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.1.b Selective Enhancement of Gene Expression by 60 Hz Electromagnetic Radiation

D. Krause, W. J. Skowronski, J. M. Mullins, R. M. Nardone and J. J. Greene, 1991. Selective Enhancement of Gene Expression by 60 Hz Electromagnetic Radiation. In Electromagnetics in Biology and Medicine (Ed. C. T. Brighton and S. R. Pollack), San Francisco Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 133-138.

2.1.c Gene-specific modulation of RNA synthesis and degradation by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

J. J. Greene, S.L. Pearson, W. J. Skowronski, R. M. Nardone, J. M. Mullins, Krause D, 1993. Gene-specific modulation of RNA synthesis and degradation by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Cell. Mol. Biol. 39(3):261-268. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7687499>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.1.d The Effect of Pulsed and Sinusoidal Magnetic Fields on the Morphology of Developing Chick Embryos

J. M. Farrell, T. L. Litovitz, L.M. Penafiel, C. J. Montrose, P. Doinov, M. Barber, K. M. Brown and T. A. Litovitz, 1997. The Effect of Pulsed and Sinusoidal Magnetic Fields on the Morphology of Developing Chick Embryos, Bioelectromagnetics 18:431-438. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9261540> [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.1.e Effects of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Activity of Ornithine Decarboxylase in Developing Chicken Embryos

J. M. Farrell, M. Barber, D. Krause, T.A. Litovitz, 1997. Effects of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Activity of Ornithine Decarboxylase in Developing Chicken Embryos. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 43:91-96. Available at: < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0302459896051744>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.1.f Dose-response of electromagnetic field –enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity

J. M. Mullins, L. M. Penafiel, J. Juutilainen, T. A. Litovitz, 1999. Dose-response of electromagnetic field –enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 48:193-199. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10228587>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.2 Radiofrequency (RF) Effects

These experiments report on effects of RF field exposure in which measurable sample heating is not a concomitant factor. Exposures in 2.2.a.were conducted at 2.45 GHz and a SAR that was substantially higher than that produced by exposure to a typical wireless device. In this case, temperature was controlled by localized cooling. Exposures in 2.2.b. were carried out at ~ 840 MHz and a SAR of approximately 2.5 W/kg which is more representative of maximum exposure from a typical wireless device. 2.2.b. reports changes in ODC activity of the order of 50% to 100%, which are amplitude modulation dependent. The results of this experiment demonstrate that the effects of ELF exposure and ELF modulated RF exposure can be equivalent.

2.2.a. Microwave Exposure Alters the Expression of 2-5A-Dependent RNase

D. Krause, J. M. Mullins, L. M. Penafiel, R Meister, R. M. Nardone, 1991. Microwave Exposure Alters the Expression of 2-5A-Dependent RNase. Radiation Research,127:164-170. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1947000> [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.2.b. Role of Modulation on the Effect of Microwaves on Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity in L929 Cells

L. M. Penafiel, T.A. Litovitz, D. Krause, A Desta, J.M. Mullins, 1997. Role of Modulation on the Effect of Microwaves on Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity in L929 Cells. Bioelectromagnetics 18:132-141. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9084864> [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.3 Temporal Sensing

This group of publications reports on how the bio-response changes as a function of changes in the characteristics of the EMF stimulus. The aim of this work was to determine the physical property constraints that bound the ability of an EMF stimulus to elicit a response. This work was based on the hypothesis that any realizable detection system, such as the systems that detect external stimuli in biological entities, has response characteristics that limit the response window. The results of this work led to the formulation of the “temporal sensing hypothesis” which specifies temporal requirements that an EMF stimulus must have to a) be detected, and b) elicit a response.

2.3.a. Effect of Coherence Time of the Applied Magnetic Field on Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity

T. A. Litovitz, D. Krause and J. M. Mullins. 1991. Effect of Coherence Time of the Applied Magnetic Field on Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 178:862-865. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1872866> [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.3.b. The Role of Coherence Time in the Effect of Microwaves on Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity

T.A. Litovitz, D. Krause, M. Penafiel, E.C. Elson and J.M. Mullins. 1993. The Role of Coherence Time in the Effect of Microwaves on Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity. Bioelectromagnetics, 14:395-403. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8285913>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.3.c. The Role of Coherence in Electromagnetic Field-Induced Bioeffects: The Signal-to- Noise Dilemma

Mullins, J.M., T.A. Litovitz and C.J. Montrose. 1995. The Role of Coherence in Electromagnetic Field-Induced Bioeffects: The Signal-to- Noise Dilemma. In Electromagnetic Fields, Biological Interactions and Mechanisms, (Ed. M. Blank) American Chemical Society, Washington DC. pp 319-338. Available at: < http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ba-1995-0250.ch018>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.3.d. The Role of Temporal Sensing in Bioelectromagnetic Effects

Litovitz TA, M. Penafiel, D. Krause, D. Zhang, and J.M. Mullins. 1997. The Role of Temporal Sensing in Bioelectromagnetic Effects, Bioelectromagnetics 18:388-395. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9209720>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.3.e. Electromagnetic field-induced protection of chick embryos against hypoxia exhibits characteristics of temporal sensing

A.L. DiCarlo, J.M. Mullins, and T.A. Litovitz, 2000. Electromagnetic field-induced protection of chick embryos against hypoxia exhibits characteristics of temporal sensing. Bioelectrochemistry 52:17-21. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11059572>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4 Neutralising Effects

The superposition of ELF electromagnetic noise, which is the basis of SaveWaveTM Technology, is a method that can be employed to eliminate the temporal characteristics that make an EMF stimulus biologically effecting. This set of publications reports on experiments carried out at CUA in which various observable end-points, modified by ELF or RF exposure, were restored to normal conditions by the use of electromagnetic noise. End points examined include, ODC activity in cultured cells and chick embryos, HSP70 (a stress response protein) levels in chick embryos, and anoxia induced mortality in chick embryos pre-conditioned with EMF exposure. These experiments demonstrate that both ELF induced effects and RF induced effects can be inhibited by superposition of ELF noise.

ELF Effects

2.4.a. Spatial and Temporal Coherence Affects the Response of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Fields

T.A. Litovitz, C.J. Montrose and P. Doinov. 1993. Spatial and Temporal Coherence Affects the Response of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Fields. In Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine. (Ed. M. Blank), San Francisco Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 339-341.

2.4.b.  Simultaneous Application of a Spatially Coherent Noise Field Blocks the Response of Cell Cultures to a 60 Hz Electromagnetic Field

J.M.Mullins,D.KrauseandT.A.Litovitz. 1993. Simultaneous Application of a Spatially Coherent Noise Field Blocks the Response of Cell Cultures to a 60 Hz Electromagnetic Field. In Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine. (Ed. M. Blank), San Francisco Press, San Francisco, CA. pp.345-346.

2.4.c.  Superposition of a Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Field Suppresses the Change in Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity in Developing Chick Embryos Induced by a 60 Hz Sinusoidal Field

J.M. Farrell, M. Barber, P. Doinov, D. Krause and T.A. Litovitz. 1993. Superposition of a Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Field Suppresses the Change in Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity in Developing Chick Embryos Induced by a 60 Hz Sinusoidal Field. In Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine. (Ed. M. Blank), San Francisco Press, San Francisco, CA. pp. 342-344. Available at: < https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/(SICI)1521-186X(1998)19:1%3C53::AID-BEM6%3E3.0.CO;2-3 >  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4.d.  Superimposing Spatially Coherent Electromagnetic Noise Inhibits Field-Induced Abnormalities in Developing Chick Embryos

T.A.Litovitz,C.J.Montrose,P.Doinov,K.M.BrownandM.Barber. 1994. Superimposing Spatially Coherent Electromagnetic Noise Inhibits Field-Induced Abnormalities in Developing Chick Embryos. Bioelectromagnetics, 15:105-113. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8024603>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4.e.  Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Fields Mitigate the Response of Biological Systems to Temporally Coherent Magnetic Fields

T.A.Litovitz,D.Krause,C.J.MontroseandJ.M.Mullins.1994. Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Fields Mitigate the Response of Biological Systems to Temporally Coherent Magnetic Fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 15:399-409. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7802708>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4.f. The Superposition of a Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Field Inhibits 60 Hz- induced Changes in the ODC Activity of Developing Chick Embryos

Farrell J.M., M. Barber, D. Krause, T.A. Litovitz, 1998. The Superposition of a Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Field Inhibits 60 Hz- induced Changes in the ODC Activity of Developing Chick Embryos, Bioelectromagnetics 19:53-56. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9453707>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4.g.  Intermittent noise affects EMF-induced ODC activity

J.M. Mullins, T.A. Litovitz, M. Penafiel, A. Desta, and D. Krause, 1998. Intermittent noise affects EMF-induced ODC activity. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 44:237-242. Available at: < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0302459897000731>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4.h.  Myocardial Protection Conferred by Electromagnetic Fields

A.L. DiCarlo, J.M. Farrell, T.A. Litovitz, 1999. Myocardial Protection Conferred by Electromagnetic Fields, Circulation 99:813-816. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9989968>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

RF Effects

2.4.i.  Bioeffects Induced by Exposure to Microwaves are Mitigated by Superposition of ELF Noise Bioelectromagnetics

Litovitz T.A., L.M. Penafiel, J. M. Farrell, D. Krause, R. Meister and J.M. Mullins. 1997. Bioeffects Induced by Exposure to Microwaves are Mitigated by Superposition of ELF Noise Bioelectromagnetics 18:422- 430. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9261539>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4.j.  Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection

DiCarlo A, White N, Guo F, Garrett P, Litovitz T. 2002. Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection. J. Cell. Biochem. 84:447-454. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11813250>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

2.4.k.  Microwave exposure induces Hsp70 and confers protection against hypoxia in chick embryos

Shallom JM, DiCarlo AL, Ko D, Penafiel LM, Nakai A, Litovitz TA. 2002. Microwave exposure induces Hsp70 and confers protection against hypoxia in chick embryos. J. Cell. Biochem. 86:490-496. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12210755>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3. Research Validation

The research findings from CUA concerning the efficacy of ELF noise as a biological effects inhibitor have been confirmed by researchers in six other leading Universities in the U.S.A., Europe and Asia. Following is a synopsis of EMF induced effects observed by these researchers. In each case, the effects, whether induced by ELF or RF exposure, were negated by superposition of ELF noise:

  • Columbia University, New York, USA Professor Reba Goodman. Department of Pathology, College of Physicians and Surgeons. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, US Department of Energy and NIEHS.
EMF-enhanced gene expression (oncogenes, stress genes, housekeeping genes), EMF-induced stress response, EMF-induced suppression of neurotransmitter dopamine [3.a, 3.d.].
  • University of Washington, USA, Dr. Henry Lai. Bioelectromagnetics Research Laboratory and Professor Baoming Wang. Department of Biomedical Engineering. Tianjin Medical University, China.
EMF induced memory loss in rats and DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells [3.h, 3.i, 3.k.].
  • University of Western Ontario, Canada, Professor A.H. Martin. Department of Anatomy. Department of Biochemistry, Victoria Hospital. Sponsored by Health and Safety Agency, Ontario, Canada.
EMF induced changes in enzyme nucleotidase levels in chick embryo brain cells [3.b.].
  • University of Aarhus, Denmark. Professor Sianette Kwee, Institute of Medical Biochemistry. Sponsored by Danfoss A/S Denmark.
EMF accelerated cell proliferation rate in human amnion cells [2.2.c.]
  • University of Aalborg, Denmark. Professor P. Raskmark, Institute of Communication Technology. Sponsored by Danfoss A/S Denmark.
EMF accelerated cell proliferation rate in human amnion cells [3.c.].
  • Zhejiang University, China. Professor H. Chiang et al., Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory. EMF induced suppression of the gap-junctional intercellular communication and enhancement in SAPK Phosphorylation activity [3.e, 3.f, 3.g.].

 

Furthermore, Colorado State University, Burch et al. 1998 [3.l, 3.m], published in Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, a scientific paper, the EMF exposures influence on the level of the important hormone, Melatonin, showing that in utility workers the melatonin reduction due to the occupational exposure to EMF in the environment was dependent on the temporal stability of the field. The study found that the more constant the EMF properties, the larger the induced reduction in melatonin levels; a finding confirming the theory behind the SaveWaveTMneutralising signal on living human beings.

Following are abstracts of peer-reviewed publications of the work referenced in this section:

3.a. Electric and magnetic noise blocks the 60 Hz magnetic field enhancement of steady state c-myc transcript levels in human leukemia cells

Lin H., Goodman R., 1995. Electric and magnetic noise blocks the 60 Hz magnetic field enhancement of steady state c-myc transcript levels in human leukemia cells. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 36:33-37. Available at: < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030245989405012J>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.b. Effectiveness of Noise in Blocking Electromagnetic Effects on Enzyme Activity in the Chick Embryo

Martin A.H., Moses G.C., 1995. Effectiveness of Noise in Blocking Electromagnetic Effects on Enzyme Activity in the Chick Embryo. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 36: 87-94. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7663424>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.c. The minimizing effect of electromagnetic noise on the changes in cell proliferation caused by ELF magnetic fields

Raskmark P., Kwee S., 1996. The minimizing effect of electromagnetic noise on the changes in cell proliferation caused by ELF magnetic fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 40: 193-196. Available at: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030245989605060X>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.d. Reduced dopamine levels in PC12 cells exposed to low frequency electromagnetic fields.

Opler M., Rukenstein A., Cote L., Goodman R., 1997. Reduced dopamine levels in PC12 cells exposed to low frequency electromagnetic fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 42: 235-239. Available at: < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030245989605115X>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.e. [Electromagnetic noise blocks the gap-junctional suppression induced by 50 Hz magnetic field]

Zeng QL, Chiang H, Fu YT, Lu DQ, Xu ZP. 2002. [Electromagnetic noise blocks the gap-junctional suppression induced by 50 Hz magnetic field], Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 20:243-245. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14694643>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.f. [Noise magnetic fields block co-supression effect induced by power frequency magnetic field and phorbol ester]

Gao XW, Xu ZP, Huo YN, Jiang H, Fu YT, Lu DQ, Zeng QL. 2004. [Noise magnetic fields block co-supression effect induced by power frequency magnetic field and phorbol ester]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 38:11-13. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14989891>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.g. Noise magnetic fields abolish the gap junction intercellular communication suppression induced by 50 Hz magnetic fields

Zeng QL, Ke XQ, Gao XW, Fu YT, Lu DQ, Chiang H, Xu ZP. 2006. Noise magnetic fields abolish the gap junction intercellular communication suppression induced by 50 Hz magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics 27:274-9. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16511880>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.h. Interaction of microwaves and a temporally incoherent magnetic field on spatial learning in the rat

Lai. H., 2004. Interaction of microwaves and a temporally incoherent magnetic field on spatial learning in the rat. Physiology and Behaviour 82:785-789. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15451642>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.i. Interactions of Microwaves and a Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Field in Single and Double DNA Strand Breaks in Rat Brain Cells

Lai H. and Singh N. P. 2005. Interactions of Microwaves and a Temporally Incoherent Magnetic Field in Single and Double DNA Strand Breaks in Rat Brain Cells. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 24: 23-29. Available at: < http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JBC-200055046>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.j. [GSM1,800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields induced clustering of membrane surface receptors and interference by noise magnetic fields]

XieL,Chiang H, Sun W J, Fu Y T ,Lu D Q. 2006. [GSM1,800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields induced clustering of membrane surface receptors and interference by noise magnetic fields]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 24(8): 461-464. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16978511>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.k. [Blocking 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation-induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in lens epithelial cells by noise magnetic fields]

Wu W, Yao K, Wang KJ, Lu DQ, He JL, Xu LH, Sun WJ. 2008 [Blocking 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation-induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in lens epithelial cells by noise magnetic fields]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 37(1): 34-38. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18275117>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.l. Nocturnal excretion of a urinary melatonin metabolite among electric utility workers

Burch J.B., Reif J.S., Yost M.G., Keefe T.J. and Pitrat C.A., 1998. Nocturnal excretion of a urinary melatonin metabolite among electric utility workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 24:183-189. Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9710370>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]

3.m.  Reduced excretion of a melatonin metabolite in workers exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields

Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG, Keefe TJ and Pitrat CA 1999. Reduced excretion of a melatonin metabolite in workers exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields. American Journal of Epidemiology 150:27-36. Department of Environmental Health, Colorado State University.  Available at: < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10400550>  [Accessed 1 November 2019]